Optimizing students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities through geoboard-assisted didactic design on triangular number pattern material

Muhamad Galang Isnawan(1), Sudirman Sudirman(2), I Ketut Sukarma(3), Fitry Wahyuni(4), Naif Mastoor Alsulami(5),

(1) Universitas Nahdlatul Wathan Mataram
(2) Universitas Terbuka
(3) Universitas Pendidikan Mandalika
(4) Akademi Perniagaan dan Perusahaan APIPSU
(5) University of Jeddah


The research aimed to optimize students’ mathematical solving abilities through the implementation of a didactic design developed based on lesson study activities on triangular number patterns. The research design used was didactical design research. Participants in the study were 10 students (12–15 years old) at a junior high school in Mataram, Indonesia. The researcher was the main instrument, with several additional instruments, one of which was the didactic hypothesis design. The data were analyzed using qualitative analysis. The research results revealed an increase in students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities during the implementation of didactic design on triangular number pattern material. However, the increase that occurred was less than optimal. This increase resulted from the didactic design encouraging students to use Quizizz, geoboards, and inspirational videos to solve problems. However, when watching inspirational videos and Quizizz, there were problems, such as an unstable internet connection, so activities that should have been done in groups were done collectively for one class.


Didactic design; mathematical problem-solving abilities; triangular number patterns; lesson study; didactical design research

Full Text:



Ahmad, C. V. (2021). Causes of students’ reluctance to participate in classroom discussions. ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering Education, 1(1), 47–62. https://doi.org/10.xxxxx/AJSEE.v1i1

Arslan, S., Baran, D., & Okumus, S. (2011). Brousseau’s theory of didactical situations in mathematics and an application of adidactical situations. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Sciene and Mathematics Education, 5(1), 204–224. https://www.academia.edu/813560/Brousseaus_Theory_of_Didactical_Situations_in_Mathematics_and_An_Application_of_Adidactical_Situations

Aylward, R. (2012). The three phases of learning. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research, 63(15), 32–36. https://doi.org/10.7763/IPEDR

Azhari, B., & Fajri, I. (2021). Distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: School closure in Indonesia. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2021.1875072

Brousseau, G. (2002). Theory of didactical situations in mathematics. Kluwer Academic Publishers. https://id1lib.org/book/979725/fd6fae

BSKAP. (2022). Pembelajaran dan asesmen. BSKAP.

Chen, X. I., & Li, Y. (2010). Instructional coherence in chinese mathematics classroom — a case study of lessons on fraction division. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8, 711–735. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-009-9182-y

Coles, A. (2014). Mathematics teachers learning with video: The role, for the didactician, of a heightened listening. ZDM-Mathematics Education, 46(2), 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-013-0541-3

Cooper, J. L., & Alibali, M. W. (2012). Visual representations in mathematics problem-solving: Effects of diagrams and illustrations. Proceeding of the 34th Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 281–288. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED584910.pdf

Cullinane, A. (2011). Formative assessment classroom techniques. Resource & Research Guides, 2(13), 13–2011. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283328368

Fatahillah, A., Hussen, S., Monalisa, L. A., Wiharjo, E., & Priyanti, N. R. (2023). Analisis pemahaman konsep siswa pada materi pola bilangan. Jurnal Edupedia Universitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, 7(1), 96–109. http://studentjournal.umpo.ac.id/index.php/edupedia

Febliza, A., Afdal, Z., & Copriady, J. (2023). Improving students’ critical thinking skills: Is interactive video and interactive web module beneficial? International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 17(3), 70–86. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v17i03.34699

Fitriati, F., Rosli, R., & Iksan, Z. H. (2023). Enhancing prospective mathematics teachers’ lesson planning skills through lesson study within school university partnership program. Journal on Mathematics Education, 14(1), 69–84. https://doi.org/10.22342/JME.V14I1.PP69-84

Garge, A. S., & Shirali, S. A. (2012). Triangular numbers. Resonance, July, 672–681. http://mathscinet.ru/files/TriangularNumbers.pdf

Ghorbanpour, E., Abbasian, G.-R., & Mohseni, A. (2021). Assessment alternatives in developing L2 listening ability: Assessment for, of, as learning or integration? Assessment x̄ approach. International Journal of Language Testing, 11(1), 36-57. https://www.ijlt.ir/article_128359_27958c504fc9d88a0a5b315691c5df52.pdf

Haryoto, S., & Narimo, S. (2013). Contextual math learning based on lesson study can increase study communication. International Journal of Education, 5(4), 48. https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v5i4.4440

Heale, R., & Forbes, D. (2013). Understanding triangulation in research. Evidence-Based Nursing, 16(4), 98. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2013-101494

Huang, R., & Shimizu, Y. (2016). Improving teaching, developing teachers and teacher educators, and linking theory and practice through lesson study in mathematics: An international perspective. ZDM-Mathematics Education, 48(4), 393–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-016-0795-7

Idawati, I., Setyosari, P., Kuswandi, D., & Ulfa, S. (2020). The effects of problem-solving method and cognitive flexibility in improving university students’ metacognitive skills. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 657–680. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.652212

Isnawan, M. G. (2022). Desain didaktis pembelajaran pecahan di SMP Negeri 1 Narmada Kabupaten Lombok Barat [Dissertation]. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

Isnawan, M. G., Suryadi, D., Turmudi, T., & Marfuah, M. (2022). Parental obstacles during distance learning mathematics in Indonesia: A phenomenology study. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(2), 873–883. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.873

Joubert, J., Callaghan, R., & Engelbrecht, J. (2020). Lesson study in a blended approach to support isolated teachers in teaching with technology. ZDM-Mathematics Education, 52, 907–925. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-020-01161-x

Khalafov, A. (2021). Factors obstructing the application of student-centered education at schools in Azerbaijan. International Journal of Education and Learning, 3(3), 183–190. https://doi.org/10.31763/ijele.v3i3.101

Khasanah, K., & Lestari, A. (2021). The effect of Quizizz and learning independence on mathematics learning outcomes. Tadris: Jurnal Keguruan Dan Ilmu Tarbiyah, 6(1), 63–74. https://doi.org/10.24042/tadris.v6i1.7288

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personel Psychology, 28, 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1744-6570.1975.TB01393.X

Lertyosbordin, C., Maneewan, S., & Srikaew, D. (2021). Components and indicators of problem-solving skills in robot programming activities. IJACSA: International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 12(9), 2021. www.ijacsa.thesai.org

Maksum, A., Widiana, I. W., & Marini, A. (2021). Path analysis of self-regulation, social skills, critical thinking and problem-solving ability on social studies learning outcomes. In International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 613–628. Gate Association for Teaching and Education. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14336a

Marfuah, M., Suryadi, D., Turmudi, T., & Isnawan, M. G. (2022). Providing online learning situations for in-service mathematics teachers’ external transposition knowledge during Covid-19 pandemic: Case of Indonesia. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 20(1), 69–84. https://doi.org/10.34190/ejel.20.1.2388

Mathematical Sciences HE Curriculum Innovation Project. (2012). Student-centred approaches in mathematics.

McMartin, K., & McMaster, H. (2016). Opening the door on triangular numbers. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 21(4), 27–34. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1121175

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. SAGE Publications, Inc. https://id.id1lib.org/book/3593988/83e08f

Moliner, L., Alegre, F., & Lorenzo-Valentin, G. (2022). The COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on 9th grade students’ mathematics achievement. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(2), 835–845. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.835

Mudhofir, A. (2021). Effect of problem-based learning model combination flipped classroom against problem-solving ability. The International Journal of High Education Scientists, 2(2), 11–26. https://www.ijhes.com/index.php/edu/article/download/174/147

Ningrum, A., & Napitupulu, S. (2021). Pengaruh penggunaan media pembelajaran geoboard terhadap hasil belajar siswa pada keliling dan luas bangun datar kelas III SD. Cybernetics: Journal Educational Research and Social Studies, 2(4). http://pusdikra-publishing.com/index.php/jrss

Norhanah, N. (2022). Implementation of lesson study in improving teacher professionalism. Tunas: Jurnal Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar, 7(2), 117–125. http://journal.umpalangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/

Nurhayati, N., Priatna, N., & Juandi, D. (2021). Improving students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities through online project-based learning models with the STEM approach. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1806(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1806/1/012213

Pohan, A. M., Asmin, A., & Menanti, A. (2020). The effect of problem-based learning and learning motivation of mathematical problem-solving skills of class 5 students at SDN 0407 Mondang. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 3(1), 531–539. https://doi.org/10.33258/birle.v3i1.850

Prabowo, A., Suryadi, D., Dasari, D., Juandi, D., & Junaedi, I. (2022). Learning obstacles in the making of lesson plans by prospective mathematics teacher students. Education Research International, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/2896860

Prema, K., & Sathiskumar, M. (2021). Problem-solving ability and academic achievement in mathematics among IX standard students. International Research Journal of Education and Technology, 2(4), 1–10. https://www.irjweb.com

Raza, S. A., Qazi, W., & Umer, B. (2020). Examining the impact of case-based learning on student engagement, learning motivation, and learning performance among university students. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 12(3), 517–533. https://doi.org/10.1108/JARHE-05-2019-0105

Risdiyanti, I., & Indra Prahmana, R. C. (2020). The learning trajectory of number pattern learning using Barathayudha war stories and uno stacko. Journal on Mathematics Education, 11(1), 157–166. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.11.1.10225.157-166

Santagata, R., König, J., Scheiner, T., Nguyen, H., Adleff, A. K., Yang, X., & Kaiser, G. (2021). Mathematics teacher learning to notice: A systematic review of studies of video-based programs. ZDM-Mathematics Education, 53(1), 119–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-020-01216-z

Saragih, J. H., & Panjaitan, D. J. (2023). Pengaruh penggunaan media sosial youtube terhadap motivasi belajar matematika dan self-efficacy siswa menggunakan kurikulum merdeka belajar pada siswa kelas X di SMK Negeri Kota Medan. Journal of Didactic Mathematics, 4(3), 180–188. https://doi.org/10.34007/jdm.v4i3.1862

Sidik, G. S., Suryadi, D., & Turmudi, T. (2021). Learning obstacle on addition and subtraction of primary school students: Analysis of algebraic thinking. Education Research International, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5935179

Sukarma, I. K., Isnawan, M. G., & Alsulami, N. M. (2024). Research on nonroutine problems: A hybrid didactical design for overcoming student learning obstacles. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2024(Article ID 5552365), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2024/5552365

Surya, E., Putri, F. A., & Mukhtar, M. (2017). Improving high school students' mathematical problem-solving ability and self-confidence through contextual learning model. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(1), 85–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3324.85-94

Suryadi, D. (2019a). Landasan filosofis penelitian desain didaktis (DDR). Bandung: Pusat Pengembangan DDR Indonesia.

Suryadi, D. (2019b). Penelitian desain didaktis (DDR) dan implementasinya. Bandung: Gapura Press.

Ulness, D. J. (2022). Structure of triangular numbers modulo m. AppliedMath, 2(3), 326–358. https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedmath2030020

Utomo, G. W., Yensy, N. A., Hanifah, H., & Stiadi, E. (2022). Analisis kesalahan siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal matematika pokok bahasan pola bilangan dan barisan bilangan kelas viii SMP IT Ma’had Rabbani Bengkulu Tengah. Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Matematika Sekolah (JP2MS), 6(3), 450–458. https://doi.org/10.33369/jp2ms.6.3.450-458

Vázquez-Serrano, D., Paternina-Borja, O., Juárez-López, J. A., & Ponce De León-Palacios, M. (2022). Analyzing the effect of using the geoboard for learning the Pythagorean Theorem. Unnes Journal of Mathematics Education, 11(3), 211–219. https://doi.org/10.15294/ujme.v11i3.61100

Vlorensius, Nugroho, E. D., & Andari, K. D. W. (2016). Persepsi dan preferensi guru-guru di Kabupaten Tana Tidung terhadap penerapan lesson study berdasarkan motivasi dan sikap untuk pengembangan profesionalisme guru wilayah perbatasan. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia, 2(3), 277–291. https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/tunas/article/download/3691/2559/14600

Wabang, R. B., Letidena, L., Lonawata, O. M., Loban, J. M., & Tang, M. I. P. (2023). Pendampingan belajar pola bilangan untuk siswa kelas VIII di SMP Negari 2 Kalabahi. ABDIKAN: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat Bidang Sains Dan Teknologi, 2(2), 221–229. https://doi.org/10.55123/abdikan.v2i2.1775

Wahyuni, F., Siagian, M. D., & Fatimah, A. E. (2023). Kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematis ditinjau dari self-efficacy: Studi korelasional. Journal of Didactic Mathematics, 4(2), 98–105. https://doi.org/10.34007/jdm.v4i2.1902

Wijnker, W., Bakker, A., Schukajlow, S., & Drijvers, P. (2021). Modeling the mechanisms of interest-raising videos in education. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(5), 823–831. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.314

Yang, L. P., & Xin, T. (2022). Changing educational assessments in the post-Covid-19 Era: From assessment of learning (AoL) to assessment as learning (AaL). Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 41(1), 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1111/emip.12492

Yanuarto, W. N., & Hastinasyah, P. D. (2022). Gamification: Quizizz in mathematical game learning for secondary students. Indonesian Journal of Mathematics Education, 5(2), 64–73. https://doi.org/10.31002/ijome.v5i2.6588

DOI: https://doi.org/10.34007/jdm.v4i3.2073


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Didactic Mathematics

Mahesa Research Center